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About Vitamins and Minerals

Name of the Vitamin


Physiological Importance

Deficiency Symptoms

Vitamin A

Liver, egg yolk, butter, milk, cheese, some species of fish, carrot, apricot, mango, potato and dark green leaved vegetables such as spinach, cabage, broccoli, lettuce and fennel.

Vitamin A plays a critical role in reproductive processes and the visual system of the eye. It leads to enhanced resistance against diseases. It is essential for the growth of bones and cartilage.

Vitamin A deficiency may cause reduced resistance to infection, visual problems. Reproductive disorders may occur.

Vitamin D

Fatty fish, liver, margarine, egg yolk

It is required for calcium homeostasis regulation and phosphate metabolism. It maintains the mineral content of the bones.

Deficiency of Vitamin D may lead to rickets in babies and small children. In adults, mature bones results in softening and bending.

Vitamin E

Seed oil such as wheat germ oil, green vegetables, legumes

A major antioxidant in all cells of human body. Antioxidants counteract ageing and lipids and Vitamin A oxidation.

Degeneration of sensory nerves may be seen.

Vitamin K

Green plants, algae, green vegetables such as spinach, brussel sprouts, broccoli, lettuce, cauliflower, chicken, cow liver and butter.

Vitamin K is vital for development of teeth and bones. It has an important role in blood clotting.

Hemorrhage and chronic diseases of liver may rarely seen.

Vitamin B1

Cereal and cereal products, potatoes, legumes.

Vitamin B1 is essential for carbohydrate metabolism and neural function.

Cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and beriberi may occur.

Vitamin B2

Yeast, milk, dairy products, eggs, meat, fish, vegetables such as green cabbage, beans, peas, wholemeal products.

Vitamin B2 plays a role in energy production. It is involved in visual process and the production of hormones.

Changes inside of the mouth (inflammation of the buccal and nasal mucous membranes), changes of the skin (lesions), changes in the eyes (cataract).

Vitamin B3

Yeast, liver, heart, kidney, meat products from muscle and wholemeal flour

Vitamin B3 is involved in energy generation and synthesis of new molecules in the cells.

Pellegra ,dermatitis, dierrhea, dementia.

Vitamin B5

Liver and kidneys, egg yolk, muscle tissue, fish, milk, yeast, mushrooms, rice, wheat bran, vegetables with green leaves and legumes, wholemeal products

Vitamin B5 plays an important role for the growth and normal function of body tissue and in regenerative processes of the skin such as wound healing, hair growth.

Deterioration of skin, hair and nails, gastrointestinal disorders, reproductive disorders, stunted growth or loss of weight, reduced immune defence.

Vitamin B6

Meat (chicken, pork and fish), potatoes, legumes, bananas, cabbage, green beans, lettuce

It has an important role in nervous system and immune defence system.

Pellegra, inflammations in the mouth and on the lips, insomnia, nervous disorders, cramps of cerebral origin in babies, hypocromic anemia

Vitamin B9

Green, leafy vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, kale and lettuce, citrus fruits, cereal, soybeans, liver, eggs.

Folates fasten DNA replication and cell division. Therefore it is important for growth and development. It lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer’s disease.

Anemia, gastrointestinal disorders, impaired immune function, growth retardation, neuropathies, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin B12

Meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese.

B12 is directly involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Therefore it plays an important role in growth and development processes.

Pernicious anemia, defective bone formation, paleness of skin and mucous membranes, neurological disorders, tingling in the hands and feet, loss of feeling, reflex movements, hallucinations.

Vitamin H

Liver, meat, fruit

Vitamin H plays an essential role in the glyconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. It is required for the propionate metabolism and the catabolism of branched chain amino acids.

Anorexia,nausea, vomiting, pallor, mental depression, dry scaly dermatitis, an increase in serum cholesterol and bile pigments, skin rash, hair loss.

Vitamin C

Fresh fruits (citrus fruits, blackcurrants, rosehips, kiwis), green vegetables (broccoli, peppers, green cabbage and parsley), potatoes, tomatoes and milk

Vitamin C helps the synthesis of collagen (for connective tissue, bones, cartilage, teeth, skin). It is an antioxidant which inhibits development of cancer and degenerative changes such as ageing and cardiovascular disease. It is important for hemoglobin synthesis. It activates the immune defense.

Reduced physical performance, exhaustion, fatigue and increased need for sleep, irritability and pain in the joints and limbs, fragility of capillaries with hemorrhages in the skin, mucous membranes, muscles, internal organs, joints, pleural cavity and myocardium, swelling of the gums, loosening and loss of teeth, impaired wound healing, impaired scar tissue formation in the connective tissue, increased susceptibility to infections as well as hypochromic microcytary anemia.

Minerals not only change the physical and chemical properties of the water but also is a protector of the bones. Minerals can not be synthesized by humans and should be taken from other sources like vitamins.



Recommended Amount



Kitchen salt

5 g*(salt)

It regulates the osmotic pressure outside the cells, enzymatic activity, stimulates muscles and nerves


Cereals, spinach, avocado, cabbage,
Potato, banana

2 g*

It regulates the osmotic pressure outside the cells, enzymatic activity, stimulates muscles and nerves


Cheese, milk, yogurt, ice cream, legumes

900 mg

Stimulates the nerves, needed to control the heart beat, blood clotting, bones and teeth growth and protection


Cheese, legumes, milk, yogurt, ice cream

1400 mg

A component of nucleic acid, carries energy, carbohydrate metabolism


Spinach, fennel, corn, cabbage, beans

350 mg (men)
300 mg (women)

Stimulating the nerves, development of bone tissue


Liver, egg, legumes, spinach, cereals, meat

10 mg (men)
15 mg (women)

Blood production, carries oxygen, component of enzyme


Liver, wheat, veal

15 mg (men)
12 mg (women)

Insulin synthesis, component of the enzymes which breaks down carbohydrates and proteins


Bean, cereals, egg yolk, fish

1,5-3 mg

Hemoglobin synthesis, component of enzyme


Cereals, legumes, beetroot, spinach, Brussels sprout

2-5 mg

Enzyme activator


Legumes, cereals, walnut

75-250 µg

Enzyme component


Legumes, cattle liver, cereals

(component of B12)

Main component of
Vitamin B12


Fish, carrot, broccoli, spinach, brussels sprouts, lettuce

200 µg

Component of Thyroid hormone, which has a role in controlling the rate of basal metabolism

* Approximately minimum daily requirements